White spruce (Picea glauca) is the northernmost tree species in North America. White spruce is of major economic importance in Canada for its wood, which is used in paper-making. White spruce wood is the provincial tree of Manitoba and the state tree of South Dakota.
- Alternate Common Name: Canadian spruce, skunk spruce, cat spruce, Black Hills spruce, western white spruce, Alberta white spruce, and Porsild spruce
- Average Height: White spruce are conical, medium sized trees reaching up to 90 feet tall.
- Average Width: Most often 10-20 feet wide.
- Leaf Description: White spruce has evergreen needles, stiff, 1/3 to 3/4 inch long, square in cross section. Needle tips are pointed, but not sharp. When crushed, a pungent odor is apparent (some say similar to cat urine). Green to gray-green. Each needle is borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma).
- Bark Description: White spruce bark is thin, gray-brown in color, smooth, later flaky or scaly.
- Twig Description: White spruce twigs are slender, light brown or pale, sometimes glaucous, hairless. Needles borne on woody pegs.
- Flowering: Monoecious; males emerge reddish but turn yellow when shedding pollen; females purple.
- Needle or Broadleaf: Needle bearing
- Comments: Picea glauca (white spruce) is native to North America. Range may be expanded by planting.